Managing Seizures

Understanding epilepsy and seizure management options


Epilepsy Overview

Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is characterized by recurrent (2 or more), unpredictable, and unprovoked seizures.

What is a seizure?

A seizure is a burst of uncontrolled abnormal brain activity between brain cells that causes temporary abnormalities in muscle tone or movements, behaviors, sensations, or states of awareness.

Did you Know?

The Epilepsy Foundation reports that 1 in 26 will have epilepsy.1



Anti-Seizure Medications for People with Epilepsy

Many people with epilepsy can achieve seizure control with anti-seizure medications (ASMs) (also known as anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)). Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are the main type of seizure management for most people with epilepsy but are not a cure.

Approximately ⅔ of all cases of epilepsy in adults and children can achieve good control of their seizures with these types of medications and can decrease the risk of seizure recurrence.

Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

In some cases, epilepsy may not be well controlled with medications due to a variety of reasons.

Drug-resistant epilepsy, also known as intractable or refractory epilepsy, is when a patient still experiences epileptic seizures after treatment with at least 2 anti-epileptic medications.2


Did you Know?

Up to 1/3 of people with epilepsy are considered to have drug-resistant epilepsy.2


Drug-resistant epilepsy doesn’t have to remain uncontrolled

There are many non-medication options available to help control epileptic seizures. People with drug-resistant epilepsy should discuss their options with their healthcare team to find the best seizure management option for them.

Dietitian & Patient

Other Seizure Management Options

Besides ASMs, there are other types of seizure management options. Some of these options may be used alongside ASMs for optimal seizure control.

Epilepsy Device Icon

Epilepsy Devices

  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)
  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS)
Epilepsy Surgery Icon

Epilepsy Surgery

  • Resection
  • Disconnection
  • Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy
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Medical Ketogenic Diets

  • Classic Ketogenic Diet
  • Modified Atkins Diet
  • Other Ketogenic Diet Variations

Effectiveness of a Medical Ketogenic Diet

Research shows that over half of individuals with refractory epilepsy will have at least 50% seizure improvement on the medical ketogenic diet.

Seizure Control on MKD Infograph-Ref

References: 1. Epilepsy Foundation [Internet]. Accessed October 13, 2023. 2. Epilepsy Foundation [Internet]. Accessed October 13, 2023.

The content in this section is for informational or educational purposes only and does not substitute professional medical advice or consultations with your healthcare professional.